Sunlight will, therefore, have a substantial influence on the character of the garden. For example, a rose garden is generally not successful in full shade, while a garden of hostas may not thrive in hot sun. As another example, a vegetable garden may need to be placed in a sunny location, and if that location is not ideal for the overall garden design goals, the designer may need to change other aspects of the garden. In some cases, the amount of available sunlight can be influenced by the gardener.
The location of trees, other shade plants, garden structures, or, when designing an entire property, even buildings, might be selected or changed based on their influence in increasing or reducing the amount of sunlight provided to various areas of the property. In other cases, the amount of sunlight is not under the gardener's control. Nearby buildings, plants on other properties, or simply the climate of the local area, may limit the available sunlight. Or, substantial changes in the light conditions of the garden may not be within the gardener's means.
In this case, it is important to plan a garden that is compatible with the existing light conditions. Garden lighting can be an important aspect of garden design. In most cases, various types of lighting techniques may be classified and defined by heights: safety lighting, uplighting, and downlighting.
Safety lighting is the most practical application. However, it is more important to determine the type of lamps and fittings needed to create the desired effects. Light regulates three major plant processes: photosynthesis, phototropism, and photoperiodism. Phototropism is the effect of light on plant growth that causes the plant to grow toward or away from the light.
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Garden design, and the Islamic garden tradition , began with creating the Paradise garden in Ancient Persia , in Western Asia. A formal garden in the Persian garden and European garden design traditions is rectilinear and axial in design. The equally formal garden, without axial symmetry asymmetrical or other geometries, is the garden design tradition of Chinese gardens and Japanese gardens.
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The Zen garden of rocks, moss and raked gravel is an example. The Western model is an ordered garden laid out in carefully planned geometric and often symmetrical lines. Lawns and hedges in a formal garden need to be kept neatly clipped for maximum effect.
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Trees , shrubs , subshrubs and other foliage are carefully arranged, shaped and continually maintained. The style was brought to France and expressed in the gardens of the French Renaissance.
Green Thoughts: A Writer in the Garden
Some of the earliest formal parterres of clipped evergreens were those laid out at Anet by Claude Mollet , the founder of a dynasty of nurserymen-designers that lasted deep into the 18th century. English Renaissance gardens in a rectilinear formal design were a feature of the stately homes.
The introduction of the parterre was at Wilton House in the s. Traditional formal Spanish garden design evolved with Persian garden and European Renaissance garden influences. The internationally renowned Alhambra and Generalife in Granada , built in the Moorish Al-Andalus era, have influenced design for centuries. Formal gardening in the Italian and French manners was reintroduced at the turn of the twentieth century.
The simplest formal garden would be a box-trimmed hedge lining or enclosing a carefully laid out flowerbed or garden bed of simple geometric shape, such as a knot garden. The more developed and elaborate formal gardens contain statuary and fountains. The English Landscape Garden style practically swept away the geometries of earlier English and European Renaissance formal gardens.
William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown were leading proponents, among many other designers. The naturalistic English Garden style French: Jardin anglais , Italian: Giardino all'inglese , German: Englischer Landschaftsgarten of the s and on transformed private and civic garden design across Europe. The French Landscape Garden subsequently continued the style's development on the Continent. A cottage garden uses an informal design, traditional materials, dense plantings, and a mixture of ornamental and edible plants.
Cottage gardens go back many centuries, but their popularity grew in s England in response to the more structured Victorian English estate gardens that used restrained designs with massed beds of brilliantly colored greenhouse annuals. They are more casual by design, depending on grace and charm rather than grandeur and formal structure. Jekyll's series of thematic gardening books emphasized the importance and value of natural plantings were an influence in Europe and the United States.
Gardening with Attitude | by James Fenton | The New York Review of Books
Also influential half a century later was Margery Fish , whose surviving garden at East Lambrook Manor emphasizes, among other things, native plant life and the natural patterns produced by self-spreading and self-seeding. The earliest cottage gardens were far more practical than modern versions—with an emphasis on vegetables and herbs, along with fruit trees, beehives, and even livestock if land allowed. Flowers were used to fill any spaces in between. Over time, flowers became more dominant.
The traditional kitchen garden, also known as a potager, is a seasonally used space separate from the rest of the residential garden — the ornamental plants and lawn areas. Most vegetable gardens are still miniature versions of old family farm plots with square or rectangular beds, but the kitchen garden is different not only in its history, but also its design.
The kitchen garden may be a landscape feature that can be the central feature of an ornamental, all-season landscape, but can be little more than a humble vegetable plot.
Green Thoughts: A Writer in the Garden (Modern Library Gardening)
It is a source of herbs , vegetables , fruits , and flowers , but it is also a structured garden space, a design based on repetitive geometric patterns. The kitchen garden has year-round visual appeal and can incorporate permanent perennials or woody plantings around or among the annual plants. A Shakespeare garden is a themed garden that cultivates plants mentioned in the works of William Shakespeare. In English -speaking countries, particularly the United States , these are often public gardens associated with parks, universities, and Shakespeare festivals.
Shakespeare gardens are sites of cultural, educational, and romantic interest and can be locations for outdoor weddings. Signs near the plants usually provide relevant quotations. A Shakespeare garden usually includes several dozen species, either in herbaceous profusion or in a geometric layout with boxwood dividers.
Typical amenities are walkways and benches and a weather-resistant bust of Shakespeare. Shakespeare gardens may accompany reproductions of Elizabethan architecture. Some Shakespeare gardens also grow species typical of the Elizabethan period but not mentioned in Shakespeare's plays or poetry. A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden , is a type of garden that features extensive use of rocks or stones , along with plants native to rocky or alpine environments. Rock garden plants tend to be small, both because many of the species are naturally small, and so as not to cover up the rocks.
They may be grown in troughs containers , or in the ground. The plants will usually be types that prefer well-drained soil and less water. The usual form of a rock garden is a pile of rocks, large and small, aesthetically arranged, and with small gaps between, where the plants will be rooted. Some rock gardens incorporate bonsai. Some rock gardens are designed and built to look like natural outcrops of bedrock.
enter Stones are aligned to suggest a bedding plane and plants are often used to conceal the joints between the stones. This type of rock garden was popular in Victorian times, often designed and built by professional landscape architects.
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The same approach is sometimes used in modern campus or commercial landscaping , but can also be applied in smaller private gardens. After a few telephone calls my visit to Stonington followed, almost inevitably. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
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